The 90+ Study

Co-Principal Investigators:
Claudia Kawas, MD
Maria Corrada, ScD

Annlia Paganini-Hill, PhD
Dana Greenia, RN, MS

The oldest-old

The 90+ Study was initiated in 2003 to study the oldest-old, the fastest growing age group in the United States.  The 90+ Study is one of the largest studies of the oldest-old in the world. More than 1,600 people have enrolled.  Because little is known about people who achieve this milestone, the remarkable increase in the number of oldest-old presents a public health priority to promote the quality as well as the quantity of life.

Interested in volunteering for The 90+ Study? Click here for eligibility requirements.

Click here to donate to The 90+ Study.

The 90+ Study participants

Initial participants in The 90+ Study were once members of The Leisure World Cohort Study (LWCS), which was started in 1981.  The LWCS mailed surveys to every resident of Leisure World, a large retirement community in Orange County, California (now incorporated as the city of Laguna Woods).  Using the 14,000 subjects from the LWCS, researchers from The 90+ Study were able to ask, What allows people to live to age 90 and beyond?

Studying the oldest-old

Participants of The 90+ Study are visited every six months by researchers who perform neurological and neuropsychological tests. Our researchers at the Clinic for Aging Research and Education (CARE), located in Laguna Woods, obtain information about diet, activities, medical history, medications and numerous other factors. Additionally, participants are given a series of cognitive and physical tests to determine how well people in this age group are functioning.

Goals of the study

Determine factors associated with longevity:  What makes people live to age 90 and beyond?  What types of food, activities or lifestyles are associated with living longer?

Examine the epidemiology of dementia in the oldest-old: How many people aged 90 and older have dementia?  How many become demented each year?  What are ways to remain dementia-free into your 90s?

Examine rates of cognitive and functional decline in the oldest-old: How do memory loss and disability affect those in their 90s?  How can people prevent memory loss and disability at this age?

Examine clinical pathological correlations in the oldest-old:  Do the brains of people in their 90s show evidence of memory loss and dementia?  Do people with dementia have differences in their brains that can be detected and treated?  Determining Modifiable Risk Factors for Mortality and Dementia: What kinds of things can people change in their lives to live longer?  Can people change their risk of dementia through diet, exercise or supplements?

Major findings

Researchers from The 90+ Study have published many scientific papers in premier journals.  Some of the major findings are:

  • People who drank moderate amounts of alcohol or coffee lived longer than those who abstained.
  • People who were overweight in their 70s lived longer than normal or underweight people did.
  • Over 40% of people aged 90 and older suffer from dementia while almost 80% are disabled. Both are more common in women than men.
  • About half of people with dementia over age 90 do not have sufficient neuropathology in their brain to explain their cognitive loss.
  • People aged 90 and older with an APOE2 gene are less likely to have clinical Alzheimer’s dementia, but are much more likely to have Alzheimer’s neuropathology in their brains.

The 90+ Study is seeking new participants. If you are at least 90 years old and are willing to participate in twice annual visits and donate your brain to research after death, you may be eligible to enroll in The 90+ Study.

Please call (949) 768-3635 or email for more information.


“Longevity: Tales from the Oldest Old” Presented By Claudia Kawas, M.D., October 2014

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